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  1. Tao Te Ching - Wikipedia
  2. Much more than documents.
  3. Why is it so often an afterthought?
  4. Department of Psychology

Finally, suggestions are proposed for an effective use of the Satir Model within the Hong Kong cultural context and within an I Tao framework in four major counseling situations. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work e. Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer. Cheung University of Hong Kong Abstract Being a therapist trained in the Satir Model and a Chinese born and educated in Hong Kong, the researcher tried to execute this study drawing on both conceptual resources of the Satir Model and Chinese cultural traditions that go back in recorded history to more than two thousand years.

This article first appeared in Satir Journal , Vol. I, no. Generations of scholars have debated the historicity of Laozi and the dating of the Tao Te Ching. Linguistic studies of the text's vocabulary and rhyme scheme point to a date of composition after the Shijing yet before the Zhuangzi. Legends claim variously that Laozi was "born old"; that he lived for years, with twelve previous incarnations starting around the time of the Three Sovereigns before the thirteenth as Laozi.

Some Western scholars have expressed doubts over Laozi's historical existence, claiming that the Tao Te Ching is actually a collection of the work of various authors.

Tao Te Ching - Wikipedia

Among the many transmitted editions of the Tao Te Ching text, the three primary ones are named after early commentaries. The "Wang Bi Version" has more verifiable origins than either of the above. Tao Te Ching scholarship has advanced from archeological discoveries of manuscripts, some of which are older than any of the received texts. Beginning in the s and s, Marc Aurel Stein and others found thousands of scrolls in the Mogao Caves near Dunhuang.

Much more than documents.

They included more than 50 partial and complete "Tao Te Ching" manuscripts. In , archeologists discovered copies of early Chinese books, known as the Mawangdui Silk Texts , in a tomb dating from BC. Based on calligraphic styles and imperial naming taboo avoidances, scholars believe that Text A can be dated to about the first decade and Text B to about the third decade of the 2nd century BC. Both the Mawangdui and Guodian versions are generally consistent with the received texts, excepting differences in chapter sequence and graphic variants.

Several recent Tao Te Ching translations e. Other notable English translations of the Tao Te Ching are those produced by Chinese scholars and teachers: a translation by linguist Lin Yutang , a translation by author John Ching Hsiung Wu , a translation by sinologist Din Cheuk Lau , another translation by professor Wing-tsit Chan , and a translation by Taoist teacher Gia-Fu Feng together with his wife Jane English.

Many translations are written by people with a foundation in Chinese language and philosophy who are trying to render the original meaning of the text as faithfully as possible into English. Some of the more popular translations are written from a less scholarly perspective, giving an individual author's interpretation.

Critics of these versions claim that their translators deviate from the text and are incompatible with the history of Chinese thought. It embodies the virtues its translator credits to the Chinese original: a gemlike lucidity that is radiant with humor, grace, largeheartedness, and deep wisdom. These Westernized versions aim to make the wisdom of the Tao Te Ching more accessible to modern English-speaking readers by, typically, employing more familiar cultural and temporal references.

Why is it so often an afterthought?

Classical Chinese relies heavily on allusion to a corpus of standard literary works to convey semantic meaning, nuance, and subtext. This corpus was memorized by highly educated people in Laozi's time, and the allusions were reinforced through common use in writing, but few people today have this type of deep acquaintance with ancient Chinese literature.

Thus, many levels of subtext are potentially lost on modern translators. Furthermore, many of the words that the Tao Te Ching uses are deliberately vague and ambiguous. Since there are no punctuation marks in Classical Chinese, it can be difficult to conclusively determine where one sentence ends and the next begins. Moving a full-stop a few words forward or back or inserting a comma can profoundly alter the meaning of many passages, and such divisions and meanings must be determined by the translator.

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Some editors and translators argue that the received text is so corrupted from originally being written on one-line bamboo strips linked with silk threads that it is impossible to understand some chapters without moving sequences of characters from one place to another. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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  • Robust Simulation of a TaO Memristor Model.

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Department of Psychology

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